1. Water fluoridation began over 70 years ago. This was before we understood the porous nature of the placental barrier, the biology of brain development, the nuances of our endocrine systems, or the modern principles of toxicology.
We used to think the dose made the poison, but now we know that is only part of the story. From the study of toxins such as lead, mercury, and arsenic, it has become clear that even small doses of a poison over time, or at a critical stage in a child’s development, can have significant negative effects on the long term health of an individual.
2. 66% of Americans drink fluoride daily via their tap water. All Americans drink fluoride in processed beverages made with fluoridated tap water, such as beers, juices, coffee, and soups.
Children today ingest much more fluoride than did children of the previous generations. This is due to the increased consumption of processed foods and beverages — both commonly made with fluoridated tap water—fluoridated toothpaste and mouthwashes, and the continued expansion of the country’s water fluoridation program. Most developed countries do not fluoridate their water. In Western Europe alone 97% of countries do not fluoridate.
3. In 2010, the EPA placed fluoride on its list of developmental neurotoxins with substantial evidence for the ability to harm a child’s developing brain. Fluoride now sits alongside mercury, lead, and PCBs as a chemical known to be toxic to the developing brain.
Currently in the U.S. we have an epidemic of neurodevelopmental brain diseases, which include ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and learning disabilities. One in six children are affected. Developmental neurotoxins, or environmental chemicals that injure the developing brain, are among the known causes for this epidemic. Brain development begins in utero and continues through the teenage years. It is a complex process that requires the precise coordination of cell growth and movement, and it can be disrupted by even short-term exposures to environmental chemicals if they occur at critical stages of this development. This disruption can lead to deficits that manifest as diseases such as ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorders. Or it may lead to more subtle deficits that affect the child’s achievements and behaviour without a definite diagnosable disorder. We now know that what is best for the brain health of children is to minimise exposure to these chemicals. Fluoride is the one developmental neurotoxin to which our children are knowingly and intentionally exposed everyday.
Mundy, W., et al., “Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxicants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies,” available at
4. In a March 2014 article in The Lancet, Harvard scientists placed fluoride on their list of 11 chemicals with significant epidemiological evidence for developmental neurotoxicity.
Phillippe Grandjean, M.D. (Harvard scientist and author of Only One Chance: How Environmental Pollution Impairs Brain Development ) and colleague Philip Landrigan, M.D. placed Fluoride next to mercury, lead, arsenic, flame retardants and six other chemicals known to be toxic to the developing brain. They concluded the article by proposing a global prevention strategy “to control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity”.
Grandjean, P. et al., “Neurobehavioural Effects of Developmental Toxicity,” The Lancet Neurology , Volume 13 , Issue 3 , 330 – 338 (March 2014).
Choi, et al., “Developmental Fluoride Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(10): 1362-1368 (2012). (March 2009).
4 News Release, “Impact of Fluoride on Neurological Development in Children,” available at http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/fluoride-childrens-health-grandjean-choi/
5. According to CDC data, 58% of African American children, and 36% of Caucasian children have dental fluorosis — a white speckling of the permanent teeth as a result of overexposure to fluoride between the ages of birth and 15.
A landmark study out of Harvard in 2014 showed that children with dental fluorosis had a lower IQ, with impairments in short-term and working memory, as compared with children without dental fluorosis.
NHANES data, summarized in correspondence from Nadine Gracia, Office of the Asst. Secretary for Health, HHS, to Dora Hughes, HHS, April 27, 2011. p. 65
Beltrán-Aguilar E.D., et al., “Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis-United States, 1988–1994 and 1999-2002” MMWR 54(03);1-44, Table 23 (August 26, 2005).
Choi, et al., “Association of lifetime exposure to fluoride and cognitive functions in Chinese children: A pilot study,” Neurotoxicology and Teratology 47: 96-101 (January-February 2015).
6. In 2006, the National Research Council Report labeled fluoride an endocrine disruptor that negatively affects normal thyroid function.
In the 1950’s fluoride was used as a medication to suppress an overactive thyroid gland. From the 2006 National Research Council Report we know that because of extensive water fluoridation, some adults regularly consume amounts of fluoride known to suppress thyroid hormone function. Currently in the U.S. we have an epidemic of thyroid disease, with one in eight women developing thyroid disease in her lifetime. Synthroid, the drug used to treat an underactive thyroid gland, is the most commonly prescribed drug in our country. While many environmental toxins have the potential to affect thyroid gland function, a study from the British Medical Journal in 2015 showed that patients in fluoridated communities are more as likely to have hypothyroidism, supporting the link between drinking fluoride and thyroid dysfunction.
National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water A Scientific Review of EPA‘s Standards, at p. 262 (The National Academies Press 2006).
Peckham S, et al., “Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water,” J. Epidemiol Community Health 0:1–6 (2015). http://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2015/02/09/jech-2014-204971.abstract
7. Frequently hailed as a policy of health equity that disproportionately benefits minority populations with no access to dental care, we now know that water fluoridation actually disproportionately harms populations of colour, including African Americans and Hispanics.
This is evidenced by the fact that African Americans and Hispanics have a much higher rate of dental fluorosis than do Caucasians (58% as compared to 36%). These populations are more regularly exposed to excessive amounts of fluoride, thus increasing their likelihood of not only dental fluorosis, but also the deleterious health effects of neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. This has led LULAC (the League of United Latin American Citizens) and many African American leaders to come out against water fluoridation.
NHANES data, summarized in correspondence from Nadine Gracia, Office of the Asst. Secretary for Health, HHS, to Dora Hughes, HHS, April 27, 2011.
8. Fluoride is a drug put in our public water in an attempt to treat the disease of dental decay. There is no precedent for putting a drug in our public water systems.
Fluoride is not analogous to the Folic Acid or Vitamin D we put in our breads and cereals because fluoride is not a nutrient. It is a prescription drug, regulated by the FDA. An accurate analogy would be if we were to put a drug such as Qnexa or Lorcaserin in our water in an attempt to prevent and treat the common disease of obesity. Not everyone needs it, and it has toxic side effects, but it might slightly decrease the Body Mass Index of some of the people who drink it.
9. The majority of the fluoride in our tap water is hexafluorosilicic acid (HFSA), a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry. This HFSA is captured by wet scrubbers, put in industry smokestacks to reduce air pollutants such as fluorine, nitrous oxide, and sulfur dioxide.
Fluorine is considered an air pollutant because it is damaging to surrounding agricultural crops and animals. Because HFSA is from industrial waste, it is often contaminated with arsenic, lead, cadmium, and radionuclides.
10. The CDC and the ADA both state that water fluoridation decreases the number of cavities in a person by 25%, at best. That is one-half to one cavity per person.
Is this small benefit worth risking the health of our brain and our thyroid gland?